Understanding Earth’s systems requires knowledge of the solid Earth. Without it, research into the atmosphere, oceans or biosphere would be severely limited. Texas A&M researchers seek to understand how the solid Earth functions, what it reveals about Earth’s past and how its resources may be used. They study the processes of the Earth’s crust to see how the Earth changes. They develop techniques to improve exploration for petroleum resources, date rocks and fossils and better understand ancient environments. This work creates a timeline of the evolution of the Earth needed for all geoscience studies as well as finding energy resources and understanding the Earth’s processes.